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||The first monarchy
The date of Rome foundation is 753 BC, yet it is not based on any document: it was just "decided" in the 1st century BC.
The original nucleus was probably made of a few huts inhabited by farmers, then gathered in a village on the Palatino Hill ("Colle Palatino"), nearby the Tiber (the river "Tevere").
When Rome became the strongest and richer city of its time, its noble roots were invented through the myths of Romolus an Remus ("Romolo", "Remo" -in Italian). Romolus is the son of Mars, god of war, and of Silvia, priestess descending from the trojan hero Aeneas.
The myth tells that Aeneas fled from Troy in flames, taking with him the father Anchises and his son Ascanius (in Italian: "Enea", "Troia", "Anchise", "Ascanio"): they landed on the coast of Latium (Lazio) and this is still the name of the region of Rome. Notice that this also represents an homage to the culture of Greek people, whose knowledge, legends and religion deeply influenced the Romans.
The tradition says that seven kings ruled Rome (Italian names): Romolo, Numa Pompilio, Tullo Ostilio, Anco Marzio, Tarquinio Prisco, Servio Tullio e Tarquinio il Superbo.
The last one was sent away by the citizens. Tarquinia is the name of a major Etruscan city; the chase of Tarquinio (Tarquinius) clearly indicates that Rome, initially subject to the Etruscan power, later took control of the region overthrowing the current balance of powers.
Nevertheless, Etruscan marks remain well evident in the Roman culture; for instance, the greatest gift of the older civilization to architecture -the arch- was extensively used by the Romans.
The king was elected by the Senate; citizens belonged to three classes: the rich and powerful nobles ("patrizi", in Italian), the plebeians ("plebei"), actually humble people and the slaves, taken to the city after victories.
The nobles and the plebeians fought each other quite often in the history of the monarchy (and even more in the republican times) of ancient Rome, especially when an enormous power concentrated in the hands of few people. The gradual conquest of the Italian peninsula and, later, of the Mediterranean, made this scenario and more possible, most often with negative consequences.
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