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The empire is born with Augustus

The death of Ceasar postponed just a little the birth of the Roman Empire: the incapacity of the Senate to govern and the discontent of the population, not last the power of single people in politics and in the military were all signs of an incoming change.
Ceasar posthumusly adopted his great nephew (by blood) and named him Gaius Julius Ceasar Octavianus, most commonly known as Augustus, a title he obtained from the Senate in 27 B.C.

Octavianus initially controlled Rome together with Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony, and during this first phase he could vindicate Ceasar by defeating the assassins in a battle.

Octavianus Augustus
Octavianus Augustus, the first Roman Emperor

The contrasts between Octavianus and Antony, though, led them to a final confrontation in the battle of Actium (31 a.C.), in which also the notorious Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, regina d'Egitto, was defeated. The affair between Antony and Cleopatra remains in the legend of ancient history, but at the time it was used by Ceasar and others to convince the Romans that Antony's intention was to diminish the power of Rome in favor of the Egyptians.
With the annexation of Egypt, Rome took control of the Mediterrenean.

Under Augustus, who became emperor, many changes in the structure of the State and of the society took place but, most importantly, the citizens of the newborn empire could enjoy a long-lasting peace ("pax augustea") -in the internal regions, obviously-, and a share of wealth after a long period of uncertainties amd civil wars.

In the city of Rome, architecture and arts flourished, also thanks to the person of Mecenate, born in Arezzo (current Italian name of a betiful city in Tuscany), around whom intellectuals and poets like Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) and Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro). The now common term "mecenate", obvviously derives from that of this patron of arts, his full name being Gaius Cilnius Maecenas.
Alla morte di Augusto, la successione a capo dell'impero toccò a Tiberio.

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